Experts from the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have been able to find the method behind inflammasome trigger due to the infection caused by a fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. As per the report, fungal infection due to A. fumigatus is a leading cause of death linked to infection in people who have a weaker immune system. The results of the study offer clues for a therapeutic approach to cure infectious and inflammatory issues. The findings of the study have been released in the journal called Nature. The co-author of the research has said that inflammasomes are crucial signs of an organisms’ native immune defense system. The preliminary findings of the study have shown that fungal infection triggers the inflammasome; however, the root cause of inflammasome activation remains unclear.
Experts have looked for pathogen linked molecular manners to establish the mechanisms for A. fumigatus. Molecular patterns of a pathogen can prompt the inbred immune retort by prompting an inflammasome sensor. Scientists, who have been involved in the study, have focused on the NLRP3 sensor, which is one of the most studied inflammasome sensors. They have found galactosaminogalactan (GAG), a fungal pathogen linked to this molecular pattern. As per the experts, GAG is crucial for the A. fumigatus induced NLRP3 inflammasome. The study has shown that deficiency of A. fumigatus in GAG does not induce inflammasome activation. On the other hand, the overproduction of GAG by A. fumigatus shoots up inflammasome creation.
Experts have said that an inflammasome trigger is needed for killing A. fumigatus in animals. Experts have done a study on mice as well. They have seen that the fungal strain of A. fumigatus, which does not produce GAG, has been more prevalent in animals, while that strain which overproduces GAG has been less common in mice. However, experts have said that inflammasome activation has been proved to be protective in gut inflammation in mouse models of colitis. Colitis is known inflammatory disease. Experts have seen that treatment with distilled GAG offers enough protection against the disease. The first author of the study has said that the study shows that defense against inflammatory issues depends on the ability of GAG. The findings of the study that the method of GAG can be used for the effective treatment of such diseases.